Glossary

  • abbreviation element

    Used in HTML alongside the title attribute to denote the use of an abbreviation. It allows screen readers to spot abbreviations and, instead of trying to pronounce the abbreviation, it reads out the full title.

  • above the fold

    Referring to the part of the web page that is visible on-screen before the user scrolls down. The term was originally used with reference to newspapers, where the newspaper would be folded and placed on a news stand. The visible part of the paper (above the fold) is what sells the paper. In web design, the part of the site that is above the fold has the same function. There must be enough content of interest above the fold to make the user want to dig deeper.

  • accessibility

    Refers to the structuring of web content in such a way that it is easily accessible to all users, in particular users with disabilities. Not to be confused with usability.

  • ADN (Advanced Digital Network)

    This network depends on a private digital service line. It conveys synchronous serial information that is private of nature. Conveyance occurs through a complete duplex four-wire line. ADN comprises of various features: non-consistent speed modes, a network reconfiguration that is controlled by the subscriber, network control as well as network diagnostics. The ADN line carries 56k bits per second. ADN services are carried by a leased or rented line. The line is designed to be used with one connection power point which enables it to be used more efficiently.

  • ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)

    ADSL technology came into existence because of the need to carry huge data movements. The substance used to move data is copper telephone wire. It is geared for a maximum of 8 Mbps downstream and 640 kbps upstream flows. On top of that it supports the normal telephone service (POTS = Plain Old Telephone Service). ADSL resembles the DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) Internet service. Using ADSL improves the subscriber’s download speed, simultaneously checking the upload speed which is typically much slower. ADSL is popular with home networking subscribers since the average user is likely to be downloading from the Web and P2P networks more frequently than uploading. The downloads are often huge while the uploads are comparatively small. And this is exactly what ADSL was designed to accomplished. The manner in which ADSL operates is by giving or distributing existing telephone line frequencies to favor downstream traffic. To add to ADSL’s many user-friendly abilities, it equals DSL in characteristics, has a high-speed service, goes into slumber mode (always available), and has voice and data support ready. The only limitation ADSL has is that it’s availability and performance is restricted by physical distances. ADSL is closely related to DSL. ADSL technology is specifically created for data communication purposes where great differences in data speed are required. It communicates data transmissions at high speed through copper telephone wire. In all aspects, ADSL overrides the characteristics of the conventional modem. ADSL is created in such a way that it utilizes high-pitch frequencies, not modulized for the human ear.

  • affiliate program

    On the Web, an affiliate program is a system whereby referrers/affiliates are financially rewarded for referring business to suppliers. An affiliate would sign up at a supplier (such as Amazon.com) and then place links to that supplier from their web site or blog. The link typically contains a special piece of code so that any referrals and sales through that link can be credited to the affiliate. Affiliate commission percentage is usually about 10% of the sale, as determined by the supplier.

    See associate program
  • affinity diagramming

    A method of organizing a large amount of data into logical groups or categories, especially useful when planning out the navigation and structure of a large web site. The method involves writing the title of each page on a post-it note and sticking them on a wall. Members of the team then move the post-it notes around until the data is in logical groups.

  • AJAX

    AJAX (Asynchronous Javascript and XML) offers a way to harness the power of JavaScript and XML to enhance interactivity in web pages.

  • alt attribute

    An alt attribute is used to specify alternate text for an image. Specified inside the IMG tag in HTML, the alt attribute contains the alternate text that is displayed inside the image placeholder while the page is loading. In some browsers the mouseover tooltip will also display the text from the alt attribute (alt text). Alt text plays a role in SEO.

  • alt tag

    See alt attribute

  • anonymous FTP (anonymous File Transfer Protocol)

    An anonymous FTP server allows visitors access to files stored on the server. These anonymous visitors may download or upload files to and from the anonymous FTP server. Access can be normally be controlled from within a web control panel.

  • anti-aliasing

    Anti-aliasing is a feature of many design programs such as PhotoShop and Corel Photopaint. This feature creates a smoothing effect on the color edges of an image, providing a smooth transition from one color area within the image to the next color area in the same image. Without anti-aliasing the individual pixels would be more visible on the edges of the color areas.

  • Apache

    The Apache HTTP server is free software. It is an open source Web server. It is compatible with Unix systems as well as Microsoft Windows and Novell NetWare to name but a few. Apache is built to accommodate configurable error messages. It is also built to negotiate databased content. It carries DBMS-BASED unique databases. Graphical User Interfaces (GUI’s) allows easier configuration. The initial development and ongoing process is carried out by the Apache Software Foundation.

  • applet

    An applet is a (small) Java program. Applet software is inseparable from the context of another program, such as the Web browser, for example. It is dependent on other software and therefore offers a very narrow function. It has no independent use.

  • application server

    An application server is installed as a software engine in a computer network. One of its functions is to host software applications. Neither the file server nor the print server has such a function. Another function of the application server is to transmit applications to linked computers. It further manages most of the applications for business logic as well as the data access applications of your computer. Server software can carry more that one software package which makes it readily accessible on networks such as a Web Server. Because of it’s multiple abilities you may use memory and databases without adding other supporting software packages

  • ARPANet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)

    ARPANet was the forerunner to the Internet. ARPANet was created by the U.S. Department of Defense. Initially used to link computers operating different systems in different locations, users could access information from different locations, which was not possible before. This was during 1960 and 1970.

  • array

    In programming, an array is an index of data values. In PHP, for example, an array contains a number of variables.

  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

    ASCII is a standard for code numbers. The standard is applied world-wide by computer programmers. ASCII encodes all the upper and lower-case Latin numbers, letters, punctuation and more. A set of 128 standard ASCII codes present a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 to 1111111

  • ASP

    ASP (Active Server Pages) is a Windows-based server-side scripting language used for creating dynamic content.

  • associate program See affiliate program
  • attribute

    In the context of HTML, an attribute is a characteristic of a tag. An IMG tag, for example, could include attributes that specify the height and width of the image.